Sustainability Economics: An Introduction
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The paper contains a rich analysis performed at the country, sectoral and product levels, worldwide, and over the — period. Negative effects of temperature variations prevail in exporting countries, especially those closer to the Equator, at the product level and mainly on the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. This negative effect is persistent and cumulative through several years after a temperature shock. Adaptation seems to be scarcely significant over the long-term.
Significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity of drivers is observed and the authors forecast forest fire frequency, examine the contribution of socio-economic factors and the role of education, and investigate the containment of fraudulent activity. Next are two papers which deal with risk analysis in climate change.
Moreover, it is shown that CRA, unlike CEA, allows for the determination of the economic value of climate information. Roshan et al. They evaluate the optimal mix of SGE and mitigation under probabilistic information about climate sensitivity and generalize cost risk analysis CRA in order to include regional temperature and precipitation risks. They propose a unifying model to analyze multiple environmental and well-being outcomes and show how a Genuine Savings-based assessment of climate change can result in a re-evaluation of the consequences and costs of inaction in terms of various climate change-related policies.
Although there has been extensive analysis of the economics of climate change, we believe that there are still a large number of open issues in terms of both theory and applied policy. Some of these open research questions refer to carbon taxes and the social cost of carbon, the impact of climate on different sectors of the economy, the appropriate statistical modeling of the relationship between carbon emissions and temperature, the impact of risk, or the effects of climate change on sustainability. We hope that our special issue provides some new insights into these important questions and identifies new directions for future research.
Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Article First Online: 12 November Environ Resour Econ 19 1 :1—25 Google Scholar. Environ Resour Econ 19 1 :1—20 Google Scholar. Bretschger L, Pattakou A As bad as it gets: how climate damage functions affect growth and the social cost of carbon. Environ Resour Econ 19 1 :1—22 Google Scholar. Brock WA, Xepapadeas A Regional climate change policy under positive feedbacks and strategic interactions. Dallmann I Weather variations and international trade.
Environ Resour Econ 19 1 :1—52 Google Scholar. Held H Cost risk analysis: dynamically consistent decision-making under climate targets. Environ Resour Econ 19 1 :1—15 Google Scholar. Michetti M, Pinar M Forest fires across Italian regions and implications for climate change: a panel data analysis.
2 History of Sustainability | Sustainability and the U.S. EPA | The National Academies Press
Environ Resour Econ 19 1 :1—40 Google Scholar. Of course, sometimes more is better, and sustainability recognizes this. Having more food or water is better for someone who is hungry; however, the sustainability paradigm would consider not the only quantity of calories or food, but also the quality of nutrition as well as broader impacts on the individual, environment, community, and economy.
In contrast, a sustainability paradigm focuses on these qualitative factors, and takes a hard and honest look at the role of economic growth in advancing these. This type of analysis is more complex and accurate than the simplistic and incorrect assumption that economic growth, measured in output or monetary terms, is the sole or even best path to improved well-being.
Responsible Management and Sustainable Economic Development
Moreover, the sustainability paradigm requires exploring issues from multiple perspectives—a much-needed competency in a diverse and global society. How can an elementary educator turn the challenging questions of sustainability into effective and age-appropriate economics instruction? The following section explains tested and effective activities for teaching the most basic concepts to young learners in the context of familiar topics. See the Appendix for lessons and resources to teach the more advanced principles not addressed here.
This forms an excellent entry point. A sustainability approach looks different. See Figure 2. Next, instead of focusing on money as the way to meet needs, sustainability first asks students to consider the elements and relationships that sustain their well-being. For example, children might identify the role of families in providing needs, and the role of the environment in providing air and water.
In sustainability, understanding how these elements work together—interdependence—is the cornerstone concept. Students must cross out the things they can do without if they are to live a fulfilling life 9. Usually, nothing is crossed out, or there is a heated discussion about whether one can have a fulfilling life without a computer. This provides an excellent opportunity to re-examine needs and wants, and to do identify the real benefits of the computer: fun, education, communication.
As students uncover, these are things we all need, and the computer is but one of many ways to obtain them. Students must next choose at least one word from each list natural and human-created , and describe how the two work together to provide well-being. For example, students might pair sunlight and food markets, noting that we need the sunlight to grow the food to sell at the market.
Through this, students see how the natural and human Commons support each other in larger systems. Questions of the Commons and well-being can also add a new lens to a common early-grade activity: learning about families and communities in other countries. Imagine how this might typically play out: The teacher assigns Johnny to make a poster about family life in a Ladakh, a remote part of India.
Johnny selects images of traditional homes, and people herding and making their own cheese and clothes. Through a sustainability lens, this activity has different outcomes. He extends his understanding of technology beyond computers to include looms, water wheels, and other tools made from local materials. Johnny also learns that skills such as weaving and cheese making are important assets for community life, serving not only as cornerstones of their economy, but also vehicles for building intergenerational relationships.
The learning can deepen by encouraging students to think about shared needs, similarities, differences, and ways cultures and communities are interdependent. For example, students could create Venn diagrams or make collages comparing everyday needs and ways they are met. How is the way you get your clothes different from how the Ladakhis do?
Sustainable economic development and the environment
Why is this? What would it be like to make your own clothes? Who in our class knows how to sew? It is also a starting point for an essential intercultural skill: considering issues from the perspective of a different culture.
What would you like to learn more about? For example, while the family Johnny studied is healthy and stable, Maria may find a family that does not have what it needs. But here, too, sustainability opens a door to meaningful inquiry. Why or why not? As described below, framing economics in broader terms than money and consumption is essential for reaching all learning. Then what? How does a teacher make economics not only relevant, but also a context for effective teaching and learning? The question and role of money in economic exchanges provides a good example.
In contrast, a sustainability paradigm provides opportunities to examine and find the value in these types of exchanges.
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For example, students can survey the knowledge, skills and resources in their own communities. Who in our community knows how to grow food? Fix a bike? Winterize a home? This inclusion of both monetized and non-monetized forms of enterprise is thus essential for making economics relevant to students of all socioeconomic backgrounds.
On the contrary, the paradigm recognizes that students must gain knowledge and skills to function in the dominant, monetized economy. The activities described are the perfect foundation for exploring a full range of economic concepts through a sustainability lens. This includes product life cycles, the Ecological Footprint, price. While a discussion of teaching these topics is beyond the scope of this article, readers can find resources in the accompanying list.